This guide covers useful research tools in terms of citation managers or bibliographic management tools for managing references, guides to citation styles and tools for writings.
Managing references can be done using bibliographic management tool or also called reference manager or citation manager. The application is used by scholars and authors to record references or citations and apply different bibliographic citation styles. Example of popular bibliographic management tools are Endnote by Thomson Reuters and Mendeley by Elsevier.
The development of reference management softwares has been driven by the rapid expansion of scientific literature. These software normally consist of a database in which full bibliographic references can be entered, plus a system for generating selective lists of articles in the different formats required by publishers and scholarly journals and integrated with word processors so that a reference list in the appropriate format is produced automatically as an article is written, reducing the risk that a cited source is not included in the reference list. They will also have a facility for importing the details of publications from bibliographic databases.
Once a reference or citation has been recorded, it can be used time and again in generating bibliographies, such as lists of references in scholarly books, articles and essays. In short, the application help authors to store, manage and search references, create list of references in word processors, import references from online resources, and generate bibliography according to many citation styles.
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Zotero [zoh-TAIR-oh] is a free, easy-to-use tool to help you collect, organize, cite, and share your research sources
Use other citation managers. Discover more at "Comparison of reference management software".
The manner in which you are required to write the in-text citation and the reference list is determined by the Reference Style. There are many different citation styles. The best known are APA, MLA, and Chicago/Turabian. Each academic discipline generally requires a particular citation style.
Your reference list should be ordered alphabetically by author and then chronologically by year of publication. The APA 6th style requires the references to be indented as illustrated below in the examples.
For instances, of multiple articles with the same authors and years of publication, please check the APA publication manual or Academic Writer. If you have the DOI for the journal article, you should include it in the reference, otherwise, it is not necessary.
De Vaus, D. A. (2014). Surveys in social research. Sydney, Australia: Allen & Unwin.
McKenzie, H., Boughton, M., Hayes, L., & Forsyth, S. (2008). Explaining the complexities and value of nursing practice and knowledge. In I. Morley & M. Crouch (Eds.), Knowledge as value: Illumination through critical prisms (pp. 209-224). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Rodopi.
Cheung, J. M. Y., Bartlett, D. J., Armour, C. L., Laba, T. L., & Saini, B. (2018). To drug or not to drug: A qualitative study of patients’ decision-making processes for managing insomnia. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 16(1), 1-26. doi:10.1080/15402002.2016.1163702
HealthTimes. (2015). The future of aged care nursing in Australia. Retrieved from https://healthtimes.com.au/hub/aged-care/2/news/nc1/the-future-of-aged-care-nursing-in-australia/495/
$250m funding boost for malaria vaccine. (2003). Retrieved from https://www.abc.net.au/news/2003-09-22/250m-funding-boost-for-malaria-vaccine/1482220
Fellner, C. (2019, April 7). Time bomb: Two new cases as NSW faces worst measles outbreak in years. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved from https://www.smh.com.au
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2018). Physical activity across the life stages. Retrieved from https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/physical-activity/physical-activity-across-the-life-stages/contents/table-of-contents
Vuong, B. (2018, November). IBISWorld industry report OD5381. Coffee shops in Australia. Retrieved from IBISWorld database.
The following explains the Harvard referencing system. It is important to note that there are many interpretations of it, especially in reference management systems such as EndNote.
Referencing in the body of your essay
The Harvard system is another name given to the Author-Date style of referencing and citation.
Referencing an idea
Referencing a quotation
Indeed, one researcher commented that 'technological innovations have saved or extended the lives of many patients' (Lumby 2001, p. 44).
Citing a source within a source
Where your source quotes or refers to another source, for example Unsworth refers to previous work by Halliday on linguistics, the citation might read thus:
(Halliday 1987, cited in Unsworth 2004, p. 15)
Only Unsworth will appear in the Reference list at the end of your assignment
The IEEE referencing style uses a numbered system. All in-text citations receive a number, starting from . When repeating a citation, use the original citation number allocated to that reference.
Referencing an idea
Whilst implementation of NAT on a network provides security from hack attacks or snooping, it makes protection of the datagram via IPSEC difficult . Several methods for allowing IPSEC thorugh a NAT have been implemented [2-5].
Slower speeds where noticed when packet switching was performed by software, rather than hardware, configurations [4,9-10].
When talking about an author or study, subtitute their details with the bracketed citation e.g.;
According to , IPv6 provides some benefits for the security-minded network administrator.
Referencing a quotation
"Who the hell knew how much address space we needed ?"
The MLA style uses an author-page method for in-text citations.
Referencing an idea
Referencing a quotation
The Works-Cited list should be indented and arranged alphabetically by author (and then by year for items with the same author).
Tarlow, Sarah. Ritual, Belief, and the Dead Body in Early Modern Britain and Ireland. Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Zheng, Sheng Tian, et al. Art in Turmoil: The Chinese Cultural Revolution, 1966-76. UBC Press, 2010.
McKenzie, H, et al. "Explaining the Complexities and Value of Nursing Practice and Knowledge."Knowledge as Value: Illumination through Critical Prisms. edited by Ian Morley and Mira Crouch, Rodopi, 2008, pp. 209-224.
Busse, William W., and Sameer K. Mathur. "Asthma: Diagnosis and Management." The Medical clinics of North America vol.90, no.1, 2006, pp. 39-60.
Bagnall, D. "Private Schools: Why They Are out in Front." The Bulletin, 27 Jan 1998, pp. 12-15.
@tombrokaw. “SC demonstrated why all the debates are the engines of this campaign.” Twitter, 22 Jan. 2012, 3:06 a.m., twitter.com /tombrokaw/status /160996868971704320.
Howard, Cerise. "2012 Fribourg International Film Festival." Australian Film Critics Association, 11 Aug. 2012, www.afca.org.au/2012-fribourg-int-ff.html.
"Romance Languages and Literatures Resources Page." University of Chicago, www.rll.uchicago.edu/. Accessed 6 July 2015.
Grammarly is a writing-enhancement app developed by Grammarly, Inc., and launched in 2009. Grammarly's proofreading and plagiarism-detection resources check for a writer's adherence to more than 250 grammar rules.
Add Grammarly for free to Chrome, Safari, and Firefox browsers.
LanguageTool is an Open Source proofreading program for English, French, German, Polish, and more than 20 other languages. It finds many errors that a simple spell checker cannot detect and several grammar problems.
Word Counter is a word count and a character count tool that helps to count the number of times a word has been used in a document. The tool is ideal for students who have a tendency of overusing certain words.
Simply place your cursor into the box and begin typing. Word counter will automatically count the number of words and characters as you type. You can also copy and paste a document you have already written into the word counter box and it will display the word count and character numbers for that piece of writing.
MindMup is a free software mind mapping application which enables users to store maps on several cloud storage providers, including Google Drive, Amazon S3 and GitHub and collaborate in real time with other users. A good number of students know how to research and come up with great concepts, but fail to execute them. MindMup is a very useful tool that helps students organize their ideas.