Geoscience is the study of the Earth - its oceans, atmosphere, rivers and lakes, ice sheets and glaciers, soils, its complex surface, rocky interior, and metallic core. This includes many aspects of how living things, including humans, interact with the Earth. Geoscience has many tools and practices of its own but is intimately linked with the biological, chemical, and physical sciences.
Geoscience investigates the past, measures the present, and models the future behavior of our planet. But it also involves the study of other planets, asteroids, and solar systems, both to better understand the Earth and to expand our knowledge of the universe.
Petroleum geology is the study of origin, occurrence, movement, accumulation, and exploration of hydrocarbon fuels. It refers to the specific set of geological disciplines that are applied to the search for hydrocarbons(oil exploration).
Petroleum geosciences include the exploration and recovery of oil and gas. Hydrocarbons are formed through geological processes in the underground. In the exploration phase, geophysical methods are used, mainly seismology. In order to prove deposits, wells must be drilled. When a commercial reservoir has been proven, the reservoir and production engineers take over and plan and carry out the recovery of oil and gas. Petroleum geosciences are therefore composed of general natural science, engineering sciences and computer technology. CO2 emissions from the petroleum industry and from society in general pose a major threat to the environment. Underground CO2 deposits are an important contribution to reduce emissions, perhaps in combination with injections into the oil reservoirs to improve the recovery factor. The development of new knowledge and technology in this field is also an important element within petroleum geosciences.